Solar street lights are known for being efficient and effective light sources in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, apart from the manufacturers and the distributors, only a few people know the solar street light working principles. Moreover, they know that they produce light at night, but cannot explain their components. They have photo-voltaic panels that are responsible for absorbing solar energy, which is then stored in batteries as electricity, to power the solar street light system at night.

Overview of Solar Street Light

Most solar street lights are always installed on lighting structures. They are made of rechargeable batteries. Photovoltaic panels of these street lights are responsible for charging these batteries. At night, the charged batteries power LED or fluorescent lights. Moreover, as far as the solar street light working principle is concerned, some of them have sensors that enable the solar panels to automatically turn and off when they sense outdoor light with the assistance of the source of light. Most of them are meant for working at night.

Working Principle

Solar street light working principle is easy and simple. Solar street lights have photovoltaic cells that are responsible for converting the sunlight’s radiation into electricity. The device’s semiconductor materials facilitate the process of conversion of solar energy into electricity. The energy conversion process is known as the “photovoltaic effect.” The electrical energy is stored in the solar batteries. If the illumination decreases to 10lux, the circuit voltage of approximately 4.5V will be opened by the solar cell board. Then, the amount of voltage value moving from the battery to other parts of the street light system will be determined by the charge and discharge controller. Moreover, the charge and discharge controller is also known for protecting the battery.

Solar Street Light Components

Apart from just knowing the solar street light working principle, there is a need for familiarizing yourself with its components. The following are the major components of such kind of street light.

Solar panel

The solar street light working principle cannot be effective without a solar panel. In other words, this is an important part of each solar street light. The solar panel is responsible for converting solar energy into electric energy. A solar street light can either have mono-crystalline or poly-crystalline. As compared to poly-crystalline, the mono-crystalline solar panel’s conversation rate tends to much higher.

Lighting Fixture

According to various researches, today, most solar street lights use LED technology. Therefore, it is an abomination to speak about the solar street light working principle without mentioning LED technology, which makes it possible for the solar street lights to provide higher lumens, using lower power energy. As compared to the HPS fixtures, the rate of energy consumption of the LED fixture is 50% lower.

Rechargeable Batteries

Just like the light fixture, the solar street light working principle cannot be effective without solar street rechargeable batteries. During the day, these batteries are meant for storing electric energy from the solar panel. Generally, solar street light is known for having two kinds of batteries: lead-acid batteries and gel cell deep cycle batteries.


This is also a significant part of solar street lights. In the solar street light working principle, the controller is responsible for determining when to switch on and off the lighting and the charging.


Strong poles are of great significance to the solar street light working principle since panels, fixtures and in some cases, batteries are mounted on them.

Advantages of understanding the solar street light

Upon understanding the solar street light working, it becomes easier and cheap to operate the solar street lighting system. You will realize that solar street light does not pollute the environment. Moreover, the working principle has reduced the chances of an accident since there are no electric wires used in the system.

Disadvantages of the solar street light

For the solar street light working principle to be effective, the installation processes and purchase of components can be somehow expensive. Upon the installation of the street lights, there are higher chances of them being stolen. Moreover, some of the rechargeable batteries, used in the solar street light system, need to be changed every time. As a result, solar street lights can start developing some mechanical problems. Some of the solar street lights cannot effectively work in rainy and cloudy days, because of insufficient sunlight. Also, the working of solar street lights can be affected by moisture and snow.

Solar Street Light Working Principle: Conclusion

When it comes to an understanding of the solar street light working principle, there are several things that you must know. Understanding various components of the solar street light system and their functions is a plus. Nevertheless, if you find it difficult to understand, do not worry, our company, Del Illumination, is here to offer you any assistance related to different kinds of solar street lights.